CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: Academic Year 2016 Meeting #2

2pm-6pm, Saturday, January 28, 2017
Lounge, the International House, Seikei Gakuen (Just Outside the Front Gate of the Campus: See the Map and Find the No. 36 Mark Far Down Right)

Let us announce our “Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region” Project, sponsored by Center for Asian and Pacific Studies (CAPS), Seikei University, will hold the second semiyearly meeting in the 2016 academic year. The speakers and their titles are:

“Western Musical Elements in Japanese Koto Music from the 19th to 21st Centuries: Sonic, Visual, and Behavioral Spheres in a Context of Cultural Change”

Henry Johnson
University of Otago, New Zealand

This paper discusses discrete western musical elements in Japanese koto (zither) music from the 19th to 21st centuries. Attention is given to sonic, visual, and behavioral spheres of such influence as a way of identifying some of the many ways that aspects of Japanese traditional music changed as a result of distinct non-Japanese (mainly western) influences. The discussion shows that some koto composers and performers were greatly influenced by non-Japanese music, and especially the art music of European traditions (Eppstein 1994; Falconer 1995; Malm 1971; Prescott 1997; Tanabe 1931). Such influences occurred before, during, and after the major political changes of the Meiji era (1868–1912), and some had a far-reaching effect on the development of major musical movements and the future direction of traditional music.

The discussion shows how elements of western music and creative practice inspired the creation of new pathways of musical culture for the koto, as one example of an instrument that carried traditional Japanese culture to the modern period. A holistic analytical approach is taken in order to study sonic, visual, and behavioral aspects of performance, each of which offers examples where western influences are characteristic of a radical change to prior or parallel musical traditions. For the purpose of this paper, the three spheres of discussion offer examples of composers, performers, and movements as a way analyzing and comprehending how such influences had a profound effect on Japanese culture of the time.


Eppstein, Ury. 1994. The Beginnings of Western Music in Meiji Era Japan. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Falconer, Elizabeth. 1995. Koto Lives: Continuity and Conflict in a Japanese Koto School. Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa.

Malm, William, P. 1971. The Modern Music of Meiji Japan. In Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Prescott, Anne Elizabeth. 1997. Miyagi Michio – The Father of Modern Koto Music: His Life, Works and Innovations, and the Environment which Enabled his Reforms. Ph.D. Diss., Kent State University.

Tanabe, Hisao. 1931. Music in Japan. In Western Influences in Modern Japan: A Series of Papers on Cultural Relations, ed. Nitobe Inazo et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Henry Johnson is Professor at the University of Otago, New Zealand. His research interests are in Asian Studies, Ethnomusicology, and Island Studies, and he has carried out field research in Europe, Asia and Australasia. His books include The Koto (Hotei, 2004), Asia in the Making of New Zealand (Auckland UP, 2006; co-edited), Performing Japan (Global Oriental, 2008; co-edited), The Shamisen (Brill, 2010), and The Shakuhachi (Brill, 2014).

“Black Intentions: Maki Ishii, Ryohei Hirose, Makoto Shinohara and the Japanese Avant-Garde’s Encounter with the Recorder”

Barnaby Ralph
Seikei University, Japan

The recorder, for all that it continues to be maligned as an instrument of elementary school education, has played an important role at the centre of virtuoso art music written in the twentieth century. Avant-garde composers such as Luciano Berio and Louis Andriessen explored a series of previously unimagined tonal possibilities, but it was a small group of Japanese composers who appropriated and transformed the idiom in ways that still exert a strong influence on contemporary music.

This performance/lecture considers several of these Japanese composers working in the European post-serialist context with a particular focus on their use of the recorder. It looks as such elements as compositional and performance technique, history and context for the composers under discussion, issues in instrumentation and the work of some other artists in the field, both contemporary with and following the Japanese group. In particular, the use of extended techniques such as microtones and multiphonics will be explored.

The session will include full and partial performances by Barnaby Ralph of the following works:

Berio, Luciano (1925-2003): Gesti

Andriessen, Louis (1939-): Sweet

Ishii, Maki (1936-2003): Black Intention I and East. Green. Spring.

Shinohara, Makoto (1931-): Fragmente

Hirose, Ryōhei (1930-2008): Meditation

Noda, Teruyuki (1940-): “Kokiriko” Variations

Du Bois, Rob (1934-2013): Pastorale VII

Linde, Hans-Martin (1930-): Music for a Bird

Tattersall, Malcolm (1952-): Ikaho

Beath, Betty (1932-): Night Songs

Dr. Barnaby Ralph is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Humanities at Seikei University with degrees in Literature, Law, Applied Linguistics, Rhetoric and Music. As a classical musician, he studied under John Martin in Australia and Hans-Maria Kneihs in Vienna. Whilst he rarely performs today, his professional career spanned more than two decades, with literally thousands of performances worldwide, as well as television and radio appearances, several CDs and even video game soundtracks to his name.

Please notify your kind attendance in advance to reserve your seats by emailing hibino**** (read **** as @)

CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: 2016 Meeting #1

2pm-6pm, Saturday, October 8
3-101 (Building No.3), Seikei University

Let us announce our “Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region” Project, sponsored by Center for Asian and Pacific Studies (CAPS), Seikei University, will hold the first semiyearly meeting in the 2016 academic year. The speakers and their titles are:

#1 Yuki Gen’naka (Tokyo University of the Arts)
“Like Some Cats from Japan: David Bowie, Kansai Yamamoto and Japan’s First Appearance in the History of Rock Music”

#2 Kei Hibino (Seikei University)
“What Americans Learned in Scarlett (1970): The Mirroring Effect of Intercultural Collaboration”

Discussions follow the two presentations.

Open Meeting
Any interested party is welcome.

Although the language used is mainly English, Japanese is used when necessary.

“Like Some Cats from Japan: David Bowie, Kansai Yamamoto and Japan’s First Appearance in the History of Rock Music”

As its title suggests, this presentation will (re)consider David Bowie’s famous stage costumes designed by Kansai Yamamoto as Japan’s first appearance in the history of rock music.
In (so-called) rock music, there is an evolutionary view of history, where both individual musicians and the genre as a whole should aesthetically grow and mature by studying and incorporating a variety of musics. It directly reflects the historical process of the early “rock ’n’ roll,” originally considered children’s music, evolving into “rock,” a form of art like classical or jazz, the earliest example of this model being the history of the Beatles.
David Bowie (1947-2016), in his earliest career from 1969 to 1974, began to broadly employ the visual elements in his works and performances, by which, it has been regarded, he developed rock music into total art. While this is part of the “growth” or “maturity” of rock music itself, it also gave Japan the first access to the canonical history of rock music. It was by Bowie’s visualization of rock, or rock musicalization of the visual, that enabled some cats from Japan he liked, fashion designer Kansai Yamamoto and photographer Masayoshi Sukita for example, to appear in rock history as essentials in Bowie’s achievement. Furthermore, it should account for the mode of Japan’s presence in and contribution to rock (or popular) music, for example, electronic instrumental music like YMO.

Yuki Gen’naka. 20th American literature and contemporary American culture. His published works include: “Race and Aesthetics in William Faulkner’s Light in August: From Racial Politics in the Civil War to Formalist Aesthetics in the Cold War” (Studies in English Literature Japanese 83 [November 2006]), 「Games People Play:『八月の光』におけるジョーと南部の権力ゲーム」(“Games People Play: The Joe-South Power Game in Light in August”)(下河辺美知子編『アメリカン・テロル 内なる敵と恐怖の連鎖』彩流社[2009]所収)「Who Hates the Bo(b) Dy(lan) Electric?:ボブ・ディランの電化を語る政治・文化・歴史の言説」(“Who Hates the Bo(b) Dy(lan) Electric?: The Political, Cultural and Historical Discourses About the Electric Dylan”)『現代思想 総特集ボブ・ディラン』(2010年5月臨時増刊号),「『仏作って、魂を探す。』:ピチカート・ファイヴと日本のポピュラー音楽の真正性」(“The Boddha Statue and the Soul: Pizzicato Five and the Authenticity in the Popular Music in Japan”)(遠藤不比等編『日本表象の地政学 海洋・原爆・冷戦・ポップカルチャー』彩流社[2014]所収), and「ザ・レヴォリューション・アンド・プリンス 音楽アメリカ民主主義」(“The Revolution and Prince: Music, America and Democracy”)『現代思想 総特集プリンス 1958-2016』(2016年8月臨時増刊号).

“What Americans Learned in Scarlett (1970): The Mirroring Effect of Intercultural Collaboration”

Presenting Scarlett in January 1970 at the Imperial Theatre in Tokyo was an epochal event in the Japanese history of producing American musicals. Based on Gone with the Wind, it was written in Japanese by Kikuta Kazuo (1908-1973), a prolific, popular dramatist and novelist who had managed the Theatre Division of Tohô as one of its executives since 1955. On the other hand, the music and lyrics were composed by Harold Rome (1908-1993), an American composer and lyricist noted for Pins and Needles (1937), a union-themed musical revue. Rome, director Joe Layton, conductor Lehman Engel, choral arranger Trude Rittman, set and lighting designer David Hays, and many other American staff members were invited to Tokyo to join the rehearsal that would last for almost two months.
Through this long, unprecedented collaboration process, the Japanese staff learned a lot about making integrated musicals. Even though Japanese had assimilated operettas and revues before WWII, they only had a vague idea about the new trend of American musicals accelerated by the unexpected hit of Oklahoma! in 1943. Not familiar with musical numbers tightly woven into the story, the Japanese performers used to stop acting to sing, as many opera singers still do. Starting with mounting the Japanese-translated version of My Fair Lady in September 1963, Japanese had produced a lot of postwar American musicals like No Strings (March 1962 Broadway, June 1964 Tokyo), Annie Get Your Gun (May 1946 Broadway, November 1964 Tokyo), West Side Story (September 1957 Broadway, November 1964 Tokyo) and so on. Nevertheless, they were slow in learning that in integrated musicals actors keep acting while they are singing and dancing so that the illusion of realism will not be broken. The Japanese performers, accustomed to the time-honored idea of revues having their accomplished art of singing and dancing showcased, had considered their musical numbers opportunities to exhibit their artistry and personalities to command applauses at the cost of the continual unfolding of the story.
As the Japanese saying goes, “Your child on your back will show you where to walk in crossing the river.” The process of education can sometimes be reciprocal. Tohô spent as much as US $ 1,500,000 to produce Scarlett, which had been expected to exceed the profit, because Kikuta decided that hiring the American staff would be an investment for the future of Japanese productions of American musicals. However, Americans were not only teachers. They were taught by Japanese what American musicals were and what they were not. Seeing Japanese sticking to the old customs and conventions of old-fashioned musical comedies, they more clearly realized what they had left behind.
This accounts for Layton’s concept of the show as a flowing, ever-changing story with music and dance without employing usual show-stopping numbers. Yet Scarlet’s constant use of music and dance to make the story appear to be “flowing” betrays how it is not. The sheer length of the original novel made it difficult to make the much shorter stage version a unified whole; the best adaptor could pick up several impressive episodes and contrive some musical “bridges” to hide the disjunctive storyline. At the same time it reveals how much postwar American musicals depend on the ideal of integration—the well-constructed structure of the story being told with music and dance enhancing the feeling of solidity.
When Rome called Scarlet “the goddamest musical,” he did not pay a lip service to Kikuta and Tohô. In 1972, he and Layton took the English production to London after they reworked a lot in their (eventually unfulfilled) attempt to mount it on Broadway. For, they saw in the work a possibility of pushing integrated musicals a step further. When Japanese might have had Scarlet fit into a revue-like episodic framework, they Americans made it more like a realist drama.

Kei Hibino. Theatre history and theory. His published works include: 「近代化された情動:カルメン・ミランダとレヴューの終焉」(”Modernized Affect: Carmen Miranda and the Death of Revues”) (下河辺美知子編『モンロー・ドクトリンの半球分割』彩流社[2016]所収)「松竹新喜劇とはどんな演劇だったのか」(”What was Shochiku Shin Kigeki?”)(神山彰編『商業演劇の光芒』森話社[2014]所収)”Oscillating Between Fakery and Authenticity: Hirata Oriza’s Android Theatre” Comparative Theatre Review 11:1 (2011).





1830年代アメリカと家事労働――Catharine Maria Sedgwickを中心に

Catharine Maria Sedgwickは、作家として1830年代にひとつの転機を迎えていたと言ってよい。
A New-England Tale(1822)やHope Leslie(1827)など、セジウィックという作家の存在を現代に改めて認識させることになったNew Englandを舞台とする歴史小説から距離を置き、セジウィックは、New Yorkを舞台とする風俗小説へと作風を一新させるのだ。Clarence(1830)、Home(1835)、The Poor Rich Man, and the Rich Poor Man(1836)、そしてLive and Let Live(1837)といった作品は、経済的発展の影で貧困問題が深刻化する1830年代のNew Yorkに身を置いたセジウィックが、市場経済を基盤とする社会にあって、家庭とはいかなる役割を担うべきなのか、という文化的問いかけに取り組んだ、その成果と考えることが出来る。セジウィックの家庭は、生産/再生産、物質主義/精神主義といったseparate spheres理論に準える二項対立概念によって定義化されるものに完全に回収されるのではなく、むしろ、個人が家事労働を介して「有用性(utility)」に還元されるシステムとして機能しているようにも見える。本発表では、セジウィックが描き出す家事労働のヴィジョンを踏まえ、1830年代アメリカにおける家事労働の文化的意義に考察を加えてみたい。

若林麻希子 青山学院大学文学部英米文学科教授。専門は、18・19世紀アメリカ小説。主な論文として、「アメリカ文学と書簡体―クレヴクール『アメリカ農夫の手紙』」『書簡を読む』(春風社、2009年)、「失われた歴史のテロル」『アメリカン・テロル』(彩流社、2009年)など、項目執筆として『アメリカ文学入門』(三修社、2013年)など。