科学研究費・基盤研究(B):「日本の地域素人演劇の包括的研究」公開研究集会

日時:2019年6月22日(土)16:30-18:00
場所:成蹊大学4号館ホール(交通アクセスおよびキャンパスマップ
発表者:五島朋子(鳥取大学教授)・本橋哲也(東京経済大学教授)・中川眞(大阪市立大学教授)
ディスカッサント:長谷川宏(哲学者)
司会:日比野啓(成蹊大学教授)

入場無料・事前申込は不要です。

16:30-17:00:「超高齢社会における素人演劇の可能性:シニア演劇を事例として」五島朋子

17:00-17:30:「函館野外劇と文化的アイデンティティ」本橋哲也

17:30-18:00:「紙芝居劇団「むすび」の挑戦」中川眞

科学研究費・基盤研究(B):「日本の地域素人演劇の包括的研究」(研究代表者:小田中章浩)では、ヘーゲルの研究・翻訳で名高い長谷川宏さんをディスカッサントに迎え、演劇研究者のみならず地域市民演劇や社会包摂型アートに関心のある全ての方を対象に公開研究集会を実施します。


戦後、燎原の火のごとく広がったアマチュア演劇運動は、その主張や実践形態において戦前の素人演劇運動と多くの共通点を持ちながら、その左翼主義的傾向ゆえに先行運動と袂を分かち、左翼運動が退潮する1970年代においてほぼ終息しました。だが80年代以降も演劇作品の上演に取り組む非専門家たちの集団は存続し、地域で活発な活動を続けています。とりわけ、90年前後からの地方創生の機運に乗り、地域住民の関心の多様化、社会における階層格差の固定化、高齢化といったさまざまな要因を反映した「新しい」地域市民演劇を見ていくと、演劇という制度についての再考すら迫られるような、きわめてユニークでラジカルな試みがなされていることがわかります。

2017年に開始した本プロジェクトでは、大都市圏でプロが上演する演劇と似ているようで異なるそうした「演劇」と社会との関係を、綿密な実地調査と取材にもとづいて明らかにしてきました。北は北海道札幌市から、南は沖縄県うるま市まで、ジャンルもミュージカル・宝塚ふうレヴュー・里神楽・新劇・小劇場と多彩にわたる地域市民演劇についての調査研究の成果の一部をプロジェクトに属する三人の研究者が発表します。

当日は同じ会場で13時より、山本良子映画監督が撮った『僕らのハムレットができるまで』が上映されます。長谷川さんがはじめた小中学生対象の学習塾・赤門塾で毎年3月に行われる演劇祭についてのこのドキュメンタリー映画を鑑賞した後、関係者による座談会が開催されます。詳しくはこちらをご覧ください。

30分の休憩後、16:30より公開研究集会を実施します。各発表者による約20分の発表に続いて、長谷川さんからの質問に答えるかたちで、議論を行い理解を深めていきます。

続きを読む 科学研究費・基盤研究(B):「日本の地域素人演劇の包括的研究」公開研究集会

CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: Academic Year 2018 Meeting #1

A Roundtable Session: Affective Media and Performance in Modern Japan: Reception, Transformation and Retransmission

Date and Time: Sunday, October 21 from 3pm through 6pm
Place: Middle Meeting Room No.2, on the 2nd floor of Building No. 10, at Seikei University

With a view to publishing our collection of articles, Affective Media and Performance in Modern Japan: Reception, Transformation and Retransmission in 2019, we’re holding a roundtable session. Each author will give a brief presentation of the chapter(s) he or she writes and answer the questions everyone else asks.

Timetable
15:00-15:20
Ayako Otomo, Western Art Music in Pre-Edo and Meiji Japan: Historical Reception, Cultural Change and Education
15:20-15:40
Henry Johnson, Western Musical Elements in Japanese Koto Music from the 19thto 21st Centuries: Sonic, Visual and Behavioral Spheres in a Context of Cultural Change
15:40-16:10
Barnaby Ralph, Black Intentions: Maki Ishii, Ryohei Hirose, Makoto Shinohara and the Japanese Avant-Garde & Juna’s Groove and Emi’s Beat: Women and Rock in Modern Japan
16:10-16:30
Kei Hibino, What Americans Learned in Scarlett(1970): The Mirroring Effect of Intercultural Collaboration
16:30-16:40
Break
16:40-17:00
Michael Pronko, The Flow of Jazz in Japan: Why Jazz Resonates So Far from Home
17:00-17:20
Yuki GenNaka, Like Some Cats from Japan: Masayoshi Sukita’s Photographs of David Bowie as Japan’s First Appearance in the History of Rock Music
17:40-18:00
Aya Sato, Manufacturing Identity: Femininity, Discourse and Representation in Japanese Popular Music

CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: Academic Year 2017 Meeting #2

2pm-6pm, Saturday, January 27, 2018
3-101 (Building No. 3, 1st Floor) [See the Map and Find No.3 Mark]

#1 “Miyagi Michio, Modernism and New Traditional Music”

Henry Johnson
University of Otago

Miyagi Michio (1894-1956) was at the heart of a transformation of koto music in the early twentieth century. As a performer and composer, he devised new instruments, was heavily influenced by Western music, and founded a performance tradition that continues to flourish to this day. What is particularly significant about Miyagi’s influence on the koto is that in the Japanese modernist period he both held on to indigenous instruments yet at the same time transformed them as a way of relocating them to the new socio-political environment. This paper examines Miyagi’s achievements. Within a paradigm that stresses transcultural influence (West on East, and East on West), the discussion focuses on three facets of Miyagi’s modernism: the invention of instruments, the composition of new music, and the foundation of a school of performance. The first of these is an examination of the new instruments he devised. Why were they needed at this time? How were they perceived? Did they last? The second part of the paper explores Miyagi’s musical modernism: his dual influences from earlier Japanese koto music and later associations with Western musical forms. The last part of the paper looks at his social legacy in terms of the music tradition or school of performance that continues to this day. How did it come about? Why does it continue? The three main parts of this discussion contribute to a re-thinking of Miyagi as a traditionalist modernist, a maker of music tradition.

Henry Johnson is Professor at the University of Otago, New Zealand. His research interests are in Asian Studies, Ethnomusicology, and Island Studies, and he has carried out field research in Europe, Asia and Australasia. His books include The Koto (Hotei, 2004), Asia in the Making of New Zealand (Auckland UP, 2006; co-edited), Performing Japan (Global Oriental, 2008; co-edited), The Shamisen (Brill, 2010), and The Shakuhachi (Brill, 2014).

#2 “The Flow of Jazz in Japan: Why Jazz Resonates So Far from Home”

Michael Pronko
Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan

This talk will examine the elements of American jazz that resonate within Japanese culture. The extent to which the African-American music of jazz has taken root in Japanese nightlife has important cross-cultural foundations that can be explored by focusing on the practice and learning trajectories of jazz by Japanese musicians. The process of Japanese jazz musicians’ assimilation of jazz can be explored in their own words, in the music and by establishing a larger cultural context. Jazz has become part of Japanese culture by both developing new elements and adopting the essentials of jazz practice, both of which are confluent with elements of traditional and contemporary culture.

This talk will explore this assimilation based on three areas of cultural transformation: first, the understanding of Japanese jazz musicians, based on their comments in interviews; second, elements and patterns of assimilation, based on examples of jazz music; and third, consideration of the larger context of Japanese culture and historical changes, based on observations of jazz practice over twenty years. By examining these three threads, the process of assimilation, and of transformation, can be explored with some consideration of the reasons and directions of that assimilation.

Akiyoshi, Toshiko. Personal interview. Nov 17, 2004.
Atkins, E. Taylor. Blue Nippon: Authenticating Jazz in Japan. Durham: Duke UP, 2001. Print.
Atkins, E. Taylor. Message to the author. (2007). E-mail.
Black Sun. Dir. Koreyoshi Kurahara. Eclipse, 1964. DVD.
Fujii, Satoko. Personal interview. November 2007.
Hara, Tomonao. Personal Interview August 2002
Hersch, Charles. Subversive Sounds: Race and the Birth of Jazz in New Orleans. Chicago: U of Chicago, 2007. Print.
Island Virgin. Essential Ellington. 2005. CD.
Mackey, Nathaniel. “Other: From Noun to Verb.” The Jazz Cadence of American Culture. New York: Columbia UP, ed. Robert G. O’Meally. 1998. 513-32. Print.
Minami, Hiroshi. Personal interview. 2005.
Moriya, Junko. Personal interview. 2016.
Play For Peace. Junko Moriya Orchestra. 2015. CD.
Nicholson, Stuart. Is Jazz Dead?: (or Has It Moved to a New Address). New York: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Tada, Seiji. Personal interview. November 2007.
Shibuya, Takeshi. Personal interview. January 2002.
Tamasa. Shibuya Takeshi Orchestra. 1997. CD.
The Warped Ones. Dir. Koreyoshi Kurahara. Eclipse, 1960. Web.
Yamashita, Yosuke. Personal interview. September 2003.

Michael Pronko is Professor of American Literature and Culture in the English Department, Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo. His research interests include contemporary American novels, film adaptations and American music. He has written about jazz for the Japan Times, JJazz.com, Jazznin, Jazz Colo[u]rs and runs his own website, Jazz in Japan (www.jazzinjapan.com). In addition to jazz, he has written about Japanese culture, art, society and politics for Newsweek Japan, The Japan Times, Artscape Japan, and other publications. He is the author of three award-winning collections of essays about Tokyo: Beauty and Chaos, Tokyo’s Mystery Deepens, and Motions and Moments. His novel, The Last Train, was published in 2017.

#3 “Guitar Making and Intercultural Communication in Japan and Australia”

Gavin Carfoot
Queensland University of Technology, Australia

The guitar has played a prominent role as a cultural intermediary and musical translator, as well as an icon of colonisation and post-War cultural imperialism. The ways such global and local forces are articulated through the guitar have been described as an example of ‘glocalisation’ (Bennett and Dawe 2001), and the idea of a ‘guitarscape’ has been offered as a way of framing the complex material, social and cultural contexts of the guitar (Dawe 2010). While much has been written on musicians’ use of the guitar in this glocal guitarscape, less has been written about the ways that people who make guitars enact and experience intercultural communication through their making, before such instruments take flight. In this paper, I explore how guitar makers in Japan and Australia communicate ideas of self and identity in and across cultures, through what we might call a ‘language’ of material agency. This language relies on post-War cultural imperialism and globalisation, but also opens up spaces in which such imperialism and globalisation can be challenged and re-configured. These aspects of making are important in understanding how the ki no bunka (culture of wood) is articulated across cultures, and how guitar makers in Japan and Australia come to understanding each other’s work along a continuum between artisanal and industrial modes of production.

References
Bennett, A., & Dawe, K. (Eds.). (2001). Guitar Cultures. Oxford; New York: Berg.
Dawe, K. (2010). The New Guitarscape in Critical Theory, Cultural Practice and Musical Performance. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Dr Gavin Carfoot is a Senior Lecturer in Music at the Queensland University of Technology, Australia. He has worked extensively in popular music curriculum and assessment at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and his collaborative work in popular music education and community service learning won a Griffith Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2012. His book Making Things Musical will be published by Routledge in 2018, and he has recent publications in the Oxford Handbook in Artistic Citizenship, Routledge Research Companion to Popular Music Education, Arts-Based Service Learning with First Peoples (Springer), Popular Music and Popular Communication. As a songwriter and producer, Gavin’s musical career has taken him from performing with touring swing bands to working with pop artists from television shows such as Australian Idol and X Factor.

Please notify your kind attendance in advance to reserve your seats by emailing hibino****fh.seikei.ac.jp (read **** as @)

CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: Academic Year 2016 Meeting #2

2pm-6pm, Saturday, January 28, 2017
Lounge, the International House, Seikei Gakuen (Just Outside the Front Gate of the Campus: See the Map and Find the No. 36 Mark Far Down Right)

Let us announce our “Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region” Project, sponsored by Center for Asian and Pacific Studies (CAPS), Seikei University, will hold the second semiyearly meeting in the 2016 academic year. The speakers and their titles are:

“Western Musical Elements in Japanese Koto Music from the 19th to 21st Centuries: Sonic, Visual, and Behavioral Spheres in a Context of Cultural Change”

Henry Johnson
University of Otago, New Zealand

This paper discusses discrete western musical elements in Japanese koto (zither) music from the 19th to 21st centuries. Attention is given to sonic, visual, and behavioral spheres of such influence as a way of identifying some of the many ways that aspects of Japanese traditional music changed as a result of distinct non-Japanese (mainly western) influences. The discussion shows that some koto composers and performers were greatly influenced by non-Japanese music, and especially the art music of European traditions (Eppstein 1994; Falconer 1995; Malm 1971; Prescott 1997; Tanabe 1931). Such influences occurred before, during, and after the major political changes of the Meiji era (1868–1912), and some had a far-reaching effect on the development of major musical movements and the future direction of traditional music.

The discussion shows how elements of western music and creative practice inspired the creation of new pathways of musical culture for the koto, as one example of an instrument that carried traditional Japanese culture to the modern period. A holistic analytical approach is taken in order to study sonic, visual, and behavioral aspects of performance, each of which offers examples where western influences are characteristic of a radical change to prior or parallel musical traditions. For the purpose of this paper, the three spheres of discussion offer examples of composers, performers, and movements as a way analyzing and comprehending how such influences had a profound effect on Japanese culture of the time.

References

Eppstein, Ury. 1994. The Beginnings of Western Music in Meiji Era Japan. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Falconer, Elizabeth. 1995. Koto Lives: Continuity and Conflict in a Japanese Koto School. Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa.

Malm, William, P. 1971. The Modern Music of Meiji Japan. In Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Prescott, Anne Elizabeth. 1997. Miyagi Michio – The Father of Modern Koto Music: His Life, Works and Innovations, and the Environment which Enabled his Reforms. Ph.D. Diss., Kent State University.

Tanabe, Hisao. 1931. Music in Japan. In Western Influences in Modern Japan: A Series of Papers on Cultural Relations, ed. Nitobe Inazo et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Henry Johnson is Professor at the University of Otago, New Zealand. His research interests are in Asian Studies, Ethnomusicology, and Island Studies, and he has carried out field research in Europe, Asia and Australasia. His books include The Koto (Hotei, 2004), Asia in the Making of New Zealand (Auckland UP, 2006; co-edited), Performing Japan (Global Oriental, 2008; co-edited), The Shamisen (Brill, 2010), and The Shakuhachi (Brill, 2014).

“Black Intentions: Maki Ishii, Ryohei Hirose, Makoto Shinohara and the Japanese Avant-Garde’s Encounter with the Recorder”

Barnaby Ralph
Seikei University, Japan

The recorder, for all that it continues to be maligned as an instrument of elementary school education, has played an important role at the centre of virtuoso art music written in the twentieth century. Avant-garde composers such as Luciano Berio and Louis Andriessen explored a series of previously unimagined tonal possibilities, but it was a small group of Japanese composers who appropriated and transformed the idiom in ways that still exert a strong influence on contemporary music.

This performance/lecture considers several of these Japanese composers working in the European post-serialist context with a particular focus on their use of the recorder. It looks as such elements as compositional and performance technique, history and context for the composers under discussion, issues in instrumentation and the work of some other artists in the field, both contemporary with and following the Japanese group. In particular, the use of extended techniques such as microtones and multiphonics will be explored.

The session will include full and partial performances by Barnaby Ralph of the following works:

Berio, Luciano (1925-2003): Gesti

Andriessen, Louis (1939-): Sweet

Ishii, Maki (1936-2003): Black Intention I and East. Green. Spring.

Shinohara, Makoto (1931-): Fragmente

Hirose, Ryōhei (1930-2008): Meditation

Noda, Teruyuki (1940-): “Kokiriko” Variations

Du Bois, Rob (1934-2013): Pastorale VII

Linde, Hans-Martin (1930-): Music for a Bird

Tattersall, Malcolm (1952-): Ikaho

Beath, Betty (1932-): Night Songs

Dr. Barnaby Ralph is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Humanities at Seikei University with degrees in Literature, Law, Applied Linguistics, Rhetoric and Music. As a classical musician, he studied under John Martin in Australia and Hans-Maria Kneihs in Vienna. Whilst he rarely performs today, his professional career spanned more than two decades, with literally thousands of performances worldwide, as well as television and radio appearances, several CDs and even video game soundtracks to his name.

Please notify your kind attendance in advance to reserve your seats by emailing hibino****fh.seikei.ac.jp (read **** as @)

CAPS Project: Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region: 2016 Meeting #1

2pm-6pm, Saturday, October 8
3-101 (Building No.3), Seikei University

Let us announce our “Influences of Western Music as Affective Media on the Asia-Pacific Region” Project, sponsored by Center for Asian and Pacific Studies (CAPS), Seikei University, will hold the first semiyearly meeting in the 2016 academic year. The speakers and their titles are:

#1 Yuki Gen’naka (Tokyo University of the Arts)
“Like Some Cats from Japan: David Bowie, Kansai Yamamoto and Japan’s First Appearance in the History of Rock Music”

#2 Kei Hibino (Seikei University)
“What Americans Learned in Scarlett (1970): The Mirroring Effect of Intercultural Collaboration”

Discussions follow the two presentations.

Open Meeting
Any interested party is welcome.

Although the language used is mainly English, Japanese is used when necessary.

“Like Some Cats from Japan: David Bowie, Kansai Yamamoto and Japan’s First Appearance in the History of Rock Music”

As its title suggests, this presentation will (re)consider David Bowie’s famous stage costumes designed by Kansai Yamamoto as Japan’s first appearance in the history of rock music.
In (so-called) rock music, there is an evolutionary view of history, where both individual musicians and the genre as a whole should aesthetically grow and mature by studying and incorporating a variety of musics. It directly reflects the historical process of the early “rock ’n’ roll,” originally considered children’s music, evolving into “rock,” a form of art like classical or jazz, the earliest example of this model being the history of the Beatles.
David Bowie (1947-2016), in his earliest career from 1969 to 1974, began to broadly employ the visual elements in his works and performances, by which, it has been regarded, he developed rock music into total art. While this is part of the “growth” or “maturity” of rock music itself, it also gave Japan the first access to the canonical history of rock music. It was by Bowie’s visualization of rock, or rock musicalization of the visual, that enabled some cats from Japan he liked, fashion designer Kansai Yamamoto and photographer Masayoshi Sukita for example, to appear in rock history as essentials in Bowie’s achievement. Furthermore, it should account for the mode of Japan’s presence in and contribution to rock (or popular) music, for example, electronic instrumental music like YMO.

Yuki Gen’naka. 20th American literature and contemporary American culture. His published works include: “Race and Aesthetics in William Faulkner’s Light in August: From Racial Politics in the Civil War to Formalist Aesthetics in the Cold War” (Studies in English Literature Japanese 83 [November 2006]), 「Games People Play:『八月の光』におけるジョーと南部の権力ゲーム」(“Games People Play: The Joe-South Power Game in Light in August”)(下河辺美知子編『アメリカン・テロル 内なる敵と恐怖の連鎖』彩流社[2009]所収)「Who Hates the Bo(b) Dy(lan) Electric?:ボブ・ディランの電化を語る政治・文化・歴史の言説」(“Who Hates the Bo(b) Dy(lan) Electric?: The Political, Cultural and Historical Discourses About the Electric Dylan”)『現代思想 総特集ボブ・ディラン』(2010年5月臨時増刊号),「『仏作って、魂を探す。』:ピチカート・ファイヴと日本のポピュラー音楽の真正性」(“The Boddha Statue and the Soul: Pizzicato Five and the Authenticity in the Popular Music in Japan”)(遠藤不比等編『日本表象の地政学 海洋・原爆・冷戦・ポップカルチャー』彩流社[2014]所収), and「ザ・レヴォリューション・アンド・プリンス 音楽アメリカ民主主義」(“The Revolution and Prince: Music, America and Democracy”)『現代思想 総特集プリンス 1958-2016』(2016年8月臨時増刊号).

“What Americans Learned in Scarlett (1970): The Mirroring Effect of Intercultural Collaboration”

Presenting Scarlett in January 1970 at the Imperial Theatre in Tokyo was an epochal event in the Japanese history of producing American musicals. Based on Gone with the Wind, it was written in Japanese by Kikuta Kazuo (1908-1973), a prolific, popular dramatist and novelist who had managed the Theatre Division of Tohô as one of its executives since 1955. On the other hand, the music and lyrics were composed by Harold Rome (1908-1993), an American composer and lyricist noted for Pins and Needles (1937), a union-themed musical revue. Rome, director Joe Layton, conductor Lehman Engel, choral arranger Trude Rittman, set and lighting designer David Hays, and many other American staff members were invited to Tokyo to join the rehearsal that would last for almost two months.
Through this long, unprecedented collaboration process, the Japanese staff learned a lot about making integrated musicals. Even though Japanese had assimilated operettas and revues before WWII, they only had a vague idea about the new trend of American musicals accelerated by the unexpected hit of Oklahoma! in 1943. Not familiar with musical numbers tightly woven into the story, the Japanese performers used to stop acting to sing, as many opera singers still do. Starting with mounting the Japanese-translated version of My Fair Lady in September 1963, Japanese had produced a lot of postwar American musicals like No Strings (March 1962 Broadway, June 1964 Tokyo), Annie Get Your Gun (May 1946 Broadway, November 1964 Tokyo), West Side Story (September 1957 Broadway, November 1964 Tokyo) and so on. Nevertheless, they were slow in learning that in integrated musicals actors keep acting while they are singing and dancing so that the illusion of realism will not be broken. The Japanese performers, accustomed to the time-honored idea of revues having their accomplished art of singing and dancing showcased, had considered their musical numbers opportunities to exhibit their artistry and personalities to command applauses at the cost of the continual unfolding of the story.
As the Japanese saying goes, “Your child on your back will show you where to walk in crossing the river.” The process of education can sometimes be reciprocal. Tohô spent as much as US $ 1,500,000 to produce Scarlett, which had been expected to exceed the profit, because Kikuta decided that hiring the American staff would be an investment for the future of Japanese productions of American musicals. However, Americans were not only teachers. They were taught by Japanese what American musicals were and what they were not. Seeing Japanese sticking to the old customs and conventions of old-fashioned musical comedies, they more clearly realized what they had left behind.
This accounts for Layton’s concept of the show as a flowing, ever-changing story with music and dance without employing usual show-stopping numbers. Yet Scarlet’s constant use of music and dance to make the story appear to be “flowing” betrays how it is not. The sheer length of the original novel made it difficult to make the much shorter stage version a unified whole; the best adaptor could pick up several impressive episodes and contrive some musical “bridges” to hide the disjunctive storyline. At the same time it reveals how much postwar American musicals depend on the ideal of integration—the well-constructed structure of the story being told with music and dance enhancing the feeling of solidity.
When Rome called Scarlet “the goddamest musical,” he did not pay a lip service to Kikuta and Tohô. In 1972, he and Layton took the English production to London after they reworked a lot in their (eventually unfulfilled) attempt to mount it on Broadway. For, they saw in the work a possibility of pushing integrated musicals a step further. When Japanese might have had Scarlet fit into a revue-like episodic framework, they Americans made it more like a realist drama.

Kei Hibino. Theatre history and theory. His published works include: 「近代化された情動:カルメン・ミランダとレヴューの終焉」(”Modernized Affect: Carmen Miranda and the Death of Revues”) (下河辺美知子編『モンロー・ドクトリンの半球分割』彩流社[2016]所収)「松竹新喜劇とはどんな演劇だったのか」(”What was Shochiku Shin Kigeki?”)(神山彰編『商業演劇の光芒』森話社[2014]所収)”Oscillating Between Fakery and Authenticity: Hirata Oriza’s Android Theatre” Comparative Theatre Review 11:1 (2011).

合衆国における「労働」の文化表象:2015年度第3回研究会のお知らせ

成蹊大学アジア太平洋研究センター・共同研究プロジェクト:合衆国における『労働』の文化表象(プロジェクトリーダー:下河辺美知子、研究分担者:日比野啓・権田健二・岡田泰平)では、講師に後藤千織(青山学院大学女子短期大学)氏を迎え、2015年度第3回研究会を以下の要領で実施します。

日時:2016年3月20日(日)16:00-18:00

場所:成蹊大学10号館2階・第二中会議室

チャリティ・ガール:20世紀初頭の労働とジェンダー

本報告は、20世紀初頭のアメリカ合衆国における売買春(性売買)をめぐる論争から、労働観の変化を考察する。

19世紀末から20世紀初頭にかけて、アメリカ合衆国は急速な工業化・都市化・移民増加を遂げる。この時期に、都市部で工場労働者やデパートの販売員などとして働く未婚女性が増加し、彼女たちのセクシュアリティをいかに統制するのかが社会的関心事となっていく。これらの若い女性労働者たちは、家族とともに暮らすこともあれば、親元を離れてアパートや下宿屋で一人暮らしをしたり、友人と暮らすこともあった。都市部で暮らす労働者階級女子たちは、自らの手で稼ぎ出した賃金を、自身や家族の生計ために使用するだけではなく、都市の商業施設が提供する娯楽を謳歌するために使用し始める。低賃金で暮らす労働者階級女子たちが、流行のスタイルを身にまとい、都市の娯楽を享受するために生み出したが、「トリーティングtreating」と呼ばれる戦略である。劇場・ダンスホール・遊園地への入場料、レストランでの食事代などの娯楽費用を男性におごってもらう代わりに、女性が男性に様々なレベルの性的な見返りを与える慣習である。彼女たちは、性的な行為(性交とは限らない)に対する金銭の支払いは受け付けないため、「チャリティ・ガール」と呼ばれるようになった。中産階級の社会改革家から見れば、チャリティ・ガールたちの行動は限りなく「売春」に近いのだが、労働者階級女子たちはトリーティングで金銭を直接受け取らないことを根拠に、自らと「売春婦」との間に線引きをした。

チャリティ・ガールの登場は、売春婦を貧困や人身売買の犠牲者と見なしてきた、アメリカの従来のセクシュアリティ観を揺さぶっていく。本報告は、20世紀初頭のアメリカにおける「売春」の定義の変容が、労働運動や社会改革運動に与えた影響を検証する。

後藤千織(ごとうちおり)青山学院大学女子短期大学専任講師。専門は、アメリカ社会史(移民、ジェンダー)。主な論文に、「家族扶養をめぐるジェンダー・ポリティクス:20世紀初頭の福祉・司法と貧困家庭の関係」『アメリカ研究』43号(2009年)、「20世紀初頭のアメリカにおける福祉政策と男性労働者 の規律化:扶養義務不履行・家族遺棄の裁判事例から」『ジェンダー史学』6号(2010年)など。

どなたにも無料でご参加いただけますが、会場整理の都合上、開催日前日までにhibinoあっとまーくfh.seikei.ac.jpにお名前と(あれば)ご所属をお書きのうえ、お越しの旨をお知らせ下さい。

合衆国における「労働」の文化表象:2015年度第2回研究会のお知らせ

成蹊大学アジア太平洋研究センター・共同研究プロジェクト:合衆国における『労働』の文化表象(プロジェクトリーダー:下河辺美知子、研究分担者:日比野啓・権田健二・岡田泰平)では、講師に菅原大一太(成蹊大学)氏を迎え、2015年度第2回研究会を以下の要領で実施します。

日時:2016年1月9日(土)16:00-18:00

場所:成蹊大学10号館2階・第二中会議室2号館3階・2-301(変更になりました)

労働と個性:Herman Melville, “The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids” における生産性について

Herman Melvilleの中編小説 “The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids” (1855)では、この作品が二部構成となっていることにも反映されているように、ジェンダー的二項対立が鮮明になっている。「独身男性」と「乙女」という語に込められる性的な豊饒さは、リプロダクションの可能性を秘めているにもかかわらず、二つのテクストは決して交わることなく別個に描かれ、不毛な関係を表している。 興味深いのは、第2部において描かれる「乙女」の従事する仕事が、製紙工場での労働である点である。「乙女」は明らかに何かを産出する場に身を置いているにもかかわらず、生気のない「仕事で青ざめた」顔をしているのである。さてここで、メルヴィルの作家としての労働について考えてみたい。メルヴィルは、テクストという個性の「生産者」でありながら、晩年は生産とは無関係な官吏の仕事に就いていた。作家の生産物とは違い、工場生産によって産出されるものには、決して従事する者の個性が反映されることはない。匿名の「身体」と化した工場労働は、本作品にどのような意味を与えてくれるのだろうか。 本発表では、共和党の結党(1854)やアメリカ労働総同盟の結成(1886)といった19世紀のアメリカの労働の在り方をたどりつつ、生産と作家メルヴィルとの関係について考察する。

菅原大一太(すがわらだいいちた)成蹊大学非常勤講師。主な論文に「インクとしてのバートルビー-“Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street”における記号の物質性について」(『成蹊人文研究』第23号)、「ゾラ・ニール・ハーストン『彼らの目は神を見ていた』研究:音とプロットについて」(『成蹊人文研究』第21号)など。

どなたにも無料でご参加いただけますが、会場整理の都合上、開催日前日までにhibinoあっとまーくfh.seikei.ac.jpにお名前と(あれば)ご所属をお書きのうえ、お越しの旨をお知らせ下さい。

合衆国における「労働」の文化表象:2015年度第1回研究会のお知らせ

成蹊大学アジア太平洋研究センター・共同研究プロジェクト:合衆国における『労働』の文化表象(プロジェクトリーダー:下河辺美知子、研究分担者:日比野啓・権田健二・岡田泰平)では、講師に若林麻希子(青山学院大学)氏を迎え、2015年度第1回研究会を以下の要領で実施します。

日時:2015年7月3日(金)15:30-17:30

場所:成蹊大学10号館2階・第二中会議室

1830年代アメリカと家事労働――Catharine Maria Sedgwickを中心に

Catharine Maria Sedgwickは、作家として1830年代にひとつの転機を迎えていたと言ってよい。
A New-England Tale(1822)やHope Leslie(1827)など、セジウィックという作家の存在を現代に改めて認識させることになったNew Englandを舞台とする歴史小説から距離を置き、セジウィックは、New Yorkを舞台とする風俗小説へと作風を一新させるのだ。Clarence(1830)、Home(1835)、The Poor Rich Man, and the Rich Poor Man(1836)、そしてLive and Let Live(1837)といった作品は、経済的発展の影で貧困問題が深刻化する1830年代のNew Yorkに身を置いたセジウィックが、市場経済を基盤とする社会にあって、家庭とはいかなる役割を担うべきなのか、という文化的問いかけに取り組んだ、その成果と考えることが出来る。セジウィックの家庭は、生産/再生産、物質主義/精神主義といったseparate spheres理論に準える二項対立概念によって定義化されるものに完全に回収されるのではなく、むしろ、個人が家事労働を介して「有用性(utility)」に還元されるシステムとして機能しているようにも見える。本発表では、セジウィックが描き出す家事労働のヴィジョンを踏まえ、1830年代アメリカにおける家事労働の文化的意義に考察を加えてみたい。

若林麻希子 青山学院大学文学部英米文学科教授。専門は、18・19世紀アメリカ小説。主な論文として、「アメリカ文学と書簡体―クレヴクール『アメリカ農夫の手紙』」『書簡を読む』(春風社、2009年)、「失われた歴史のテロル」『アメリカン・テロル』(彩流社、2009年)など、項目執筆として『アメリカ文学入門』(三修社、2013年)など。

どなたにも無料でご参加いただけますが、会場整理の都合上、開催日前日までにhibinoあっとまーくfh.seikei.ac.jpにお名前と(あれば)ご所属をお書きのうえ、お越しの旨をお知らせ下さい。

『日本表象の地政学: 海洋・原爆・冷戦・ポップカルチャー』韓国語版が出版されました

アジア太平洋研究プロジェクト「近代『日本』」の表象形成と環太平洋の地政学」(2010〜2012年度)の成果物として、遠藤不比人編『日本表象の地政学: 海洋・原爆・冷戦・ポップカルチャー』(成蹊大学アジア太平洋研究センター叢書)は2014年3月に彩流社より出版されましたが、2014年12月韓国で漢陽大学東アジア文化研究所研究イ・ギョンヒ教授の翻訳により、漢陽大学出版部より翻訳出版されました(『일본 표상의 지정학 : 해양.원폭.냉전.대중문화』ISBN: 978-89-7218-460-7)。オンライン書店yes.24の本書ページはこちら。Google翻訳で日本語にしたもののリンクはこちらです。

合衆国における「労働」の文化表象:2014年度第3回研究会のお知らせ

成蹊大学アジア太平洋研究センター・共同研究プロジェクト:合衆国における『労働』の文化表象(プロジェクトリーダー:下河辺美知子、研究分担者:日比野啓・権田健二・岡田泰平)では、講師に源中由記(東京藝術大学)氏を迎え、2014年度第3回研究会を以下の要領で実施します。

日時 2015年3月30日(月)17:00〜19:00 場所 成蹊大学10号館2階第二中会議室

芸術作品における価値と労働————米国のクラブ・ミュージック史を中心に

 芸術作品あるいは「作品」にかぎらず人工物一般の「価値」が評価されるさい、その「価値」はそこに投下された「労働」の価値として解釈される。そうであるならば「評価」の行為とは「作品」を(あるいは、その他の人工物一般を)「労働」の表象として解釈する行為である。ある作品がすぐれた作品であると考えるものは、その制作過程における作者の労働が質的・量的にすぐれていると評価しているのであり、逆にその作品が過大評価されていると考えるものは、作者の労働の質・量が作品の評価に見あわず低く、ゆえに作者は「不労所得」を得ているのだと批判していると考えられる。
 人力で演奏される代わりにプログラムされた自動機械によって演奏される音楽作品(「打ち込み」による電子音楽)、あるいは過去の音源を素材として「サンプル」する音楽作品(ヒップホップ)、あるいは過去の音源の再生を素材として演奏する音楽作品(「DJ」)といったクラブ・ミュージックの評価はそうした(素朴な)労働価値説によって低い評価をあたえられてきた歴史をもち、ゆえにそれらの音楽作品を(再)評価するこころみもまた同じ労働価値説に沿って、それらの作品を質的・量的にすぐれた労働として(再)表象するこころみになると考えられる。本発表では米国クラブ・ミュージック史のいくつかをそうしたこころみの一環として再読し、芸術作品の制作および評価の行為における価値と労働の定義の変化・不変化について考えたい。七〇年代から八〇年代前半を中心に見る予定。

源中由記 専門は米国文学・文化、おもに二〇世紀後半以降。論文収録書に「Games People Play 『八月の光』におけるジョーと南部の権力ゲーム」『アメリカン・テロル 内なる敵と恐怖の連鎖』(彩流社、2009年)他。雑誌論文に「Who Hates the Bo(b) Dy(lan) Electric? ボブ・ディランの電化を語る政治・文化・歴史の言説」『現代思想 総特集ボブ・ディラン』(2010年5月臨時増刊号)他。